General Introduction - The Prophet - 20 

6. Duncan Nimmo notes the effect of the decision of the 1266 Chapter of Paris to favor Bonaventure's Major Legend of Saint Francis by pointing out: "the Franciscan editors knew of 179 manuscripts of Bonaventure's life; they knew less than a score for Celano's first biography, The Life of Saint Francis, most of which had belonged apparently to the Cistercians, not to the brothers at all; and for his Second Life the number of complete copies known at present is two." Cf. Duncan Nimmo, Reform and Division in the Medieval Franciscan Order: From Saint Francis to the Foundation of the Capuchins. Bibliotecha Seraphico-Capuccina 33 (Rome: Capuchin Historical Institute, 4 1987), 73-4.

7. Cf. Gerhard Ruf, San Francesco e San Bonaventura: Un Interpretazione Stofico-salvifica degli Affreschi delta Navata nella Chiesa Superiore di San Francesco in Assisi alla Luce delta Teologia di San Bonaventura (Assisi: Casa Editrice Francescana, 1974); William Cook, Images of Saint Francis of Assisi in Painting, Stone, and Glass: From the Earliest Images to c. 1320 in Italy. A Catalogue. (Florence: L.S. Olschki, 199). Richard Emmerson and Ronald Herzman, The Apocalyptic Imagination in Medieval Literature (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992).

8. Cf. infra 78-105.

9. Cf. FA:ED II 500-5.

10. Cf. FA:ED II 548.

11. Cf. FA:ED II 61ff.

12. Cf. infra 25.

13. Infra 31-74.

14. Cf. infra 114-137.

15. The earliest Latin sources refer to him as Petrus Johannis Olivi. Apparently his father was John Olivi; thus making him Peter of John Olivi, or, in French, Pierre Déjean Olieu.

16. Cf. Nimmo, Reform, 1-429; John R.H. Moorman, A History of the Franciscan Order—From Its Origins to the Year 1517 (Oxford at The Clarendon Press, 1968), 177-368; Lazaro Iriarte, Franciscan History: The Three Orders of St. Francis of Assisi, translated by Patricia Ross, with introduction by Lawrence C. Landidi (Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press, 1982), 51-83; Gratien Baden of Paris, Histoire de la Fondation e de I'Evolution de I'Ordre des Freres Minuers au X111e Siecle (Paris: Societè de Libraire S. François d'Assise, 1928), 321-509; Raphael M. Huber, A Documented History of the Franciscan Order (Milwaukee, Washington, D.C.: The Nowing Publishing Apostolate, Inc., 1944), 167-253; Heribert Holzapel, The History of the Franciscan Order (Teutopolis: St. Joseph Seminary, 1948), 35-70. Of these works, only Nimmo provides an understanding of the majority of the texts in FA:ED III in a historcal context.

17. For an overview of these crises see The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Middle Ages, Vol. III: 1250-1520, ed. Robert Fossier (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987), 1-191. For an evocative description see Barbara Tuchmann, A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century (New York: Knopf, 1978).

18. For a thorough understanding of this period, cf. Robert Brentano, Rome Before Avignon: A Social History of Thirteenth Century Rome (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1990).

19. Cf. Joseph Lynch, The Medieval Church: A Brief History (London: Longman, 1992), 317-35. For the best history of the period see Chester Oakley, The Western Church in the Late Middle Ages (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1979).

20. FA:ED I 570-5.

21. FA:ED II 774-9.

22. Nicholas III, cf. Exiit Qui Seminat, infra 739-64.

23. As Bernard McGinn notes: "it would be almost impossible to discern a writer concerned with apocalyptic themes during this time who was not touched by the 'sign' of the papacy's withdrawal from its established home. Perhaps John XXII was just that much more an Antichrist to the Franciscan Spirituals because he was no longer a Roman pope, and surely the predictions of John of Rupescissa that the pope and the curia would return to Rome before the outbreak of the final events was not a solitary hope." Cf. Bernard McGinn, Visions of the End: Apocalyptic Traditions in the Middle Ages (New York: Columbia University Press, 1979), 239.

24. Cf. Cambridge Illustrated History, 39-51.

25. For further background, see Michel Mollat, The Poor in the Middle Ages: An Essay in Social History, trans. Arthur Goldhammer (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1978), 158-64.

26. Cf. Jacques LeGoff, Medieval Civilization 400-1500, trans. Julia Barrow (Oxford, UK & Cambridge, USA: Blackwell, 1988), 108.

27. Ibid.

28. For a synthesis of the background to and events of the Hundred Years War, see Charles W. Dunn's introduction to Jean Froissant, The Chronicles of England, France, and Spain, introduction by Charles W,. Dunn (New York: Dutton, 1961). Cf. LeGoff, Medieval Civilization, 109.

29. Cf. Heiko Augustinus Oberman, The Dawn of the Reformation. Essays in Late Medieval and Eariy Reformation Thought (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, Ltd. 1986).

30. Cf. Odd Langholm, "The Economic Ethics of the Mendicant Orders: A Paradigm and A Legacy," Etica e Politica: Le Teorie dei Frati Mendicanti nel Due e Trecento, Atti del XXVI Convegno Internazionale, Società Internazionale di Studi Francescani (Spoleto: Centro Italiano di Studi sull'Alto Medievo, 1999), 153-72.




Francis of Assisi: Early Documents, vol. 3, p. 20